Assess the consequences of out-sourcing

Write an essay of not more than 1,500 words (not including supporting data, diagrams etc) on

one of the following topics.

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1. Assess the consequences of out-sourcing and offshoring for growth, employment

and skills in the industrialised economies.

2. Compare the theories of international business; which one offers the best explanation

of horizontal FDI and why. Support your answer with suitable examples.

3. Outline the principal findings of Stern et al. (2000) (S. Stern, M.E. Porter & J.L.

Furman, „The determinants of national innovative capacity‟, NBER Working

Paper, No. 7876.‟), with respect to the determinants of the international location of

R&D and innovation. In the light of developments in the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India

and China) economies, evaluate the future implications for global R&D and


4. “Foreign exchange exposure is a measure of the potential for the firms profitability,

net cash flow and market value to be adversely affected by unanticipated changes in

the exchange rate ”

Elucidate the above statement explaining the three traditional types of foreign exposure

using suitable examples.


Markers look for the following points in essays and examination answers:

Does the essay answer the question asked?

Mediocre essays simply reproduce notes on the topic which the question asks about,

rather than answering the question. Good essays show how and why the material is

relevant to the question.

Does the essay make an argument?

A good essay makes arguments rather than assertions. It evaluates the strengths and

weaknesses of the arguments it uses. It brings together material from a variety of

sources (lectures, textbooks and further reading) to make a coherent argument rather

than a list of points.

Does the student understand and explain the economics clearly at an appropriate level for

the course? Does the student distinguish between analytical argument, evidence, opinion,

and moral and political judgement?

The distinction is useful if not entirely clear cut. Some of the things you are asked to

write about are politically and ethically controversial. By all means express your

opinions, but explain the argument and evidence which supports your opinions, and

opposing views.

The following considerations apply to any piece of writing

Is the language used correctly (spelling, punctuation, grammar)?

Is the writing clear?

It should not be necessary to read a sentence twice to understand what it means. It

is easier to write clearly in English using short sentences with simple structures.

However more elaborate writing can be more interesting to read. When you read

something that is particularly clear or particularly obscure ask yourself why. Notice

when a topic you thought dull is made interesting. How does the writer do it?

Does the structure serve the purpose of the writing well?

Structuring an essay well requires a clear understanding in your mind of what

arguments you are using, and how they relate to each other.


Somewhere near the beginning of the essay you need to indicate to the reader how

you are going to approach and structure your essay. The introduction may also set

the question in context.

Someone has to read students‟ essays. In later life the first paragraph must persuade

people to continue reading.


This is your opportunity to pull the threads of your argument together, to leave your

reader with a clear view of what you have achieved in your writing.

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